Tag Archives: Cyber security

Machines Inventing Musical Instruments

1 May

by Paul Curzon, Queen Mary University of London

based on a 2016 talk by Rebecca Fiebrink

Gesturing hands copyright www.istock.com 1876387

Machine Learning is the technology driving driverless cars, recognising faces in your photo collection and more, but how could it help machines invent new instruments? Rebecca Fiebrink of Goldsmiths, University of London is finding out.

Rebecca is helping composers and instrument builders to design new musical instruments and giving them new ways to perform. Her work has also shown that machine learning provides an alternative to programming as a way to quickly turn design ideas into prototypes that can be tested.

Suppose you want to create a new drum machine-based musical instrument that is controlled by the wave of a hand: perhaps a fist means one beat, whereas waggling your fingers brings in a different beat. To program a prototype of your idea, you would need to write code that could recognize all the different hand gestures, perhaps based on a video feed. You would then have some kind of decision code that chose the appropriate beat. The second part is not too hard, perhaps, but writing code to recognize specific gestures in video is a lot harder, needing sophisticated programming skills. Rebecca wants even young children to be able to do it!

How can machine learning help? Rebecca has developed a machine learning program with a difference. It takes sensor input – sound, video, in fact just about any kind of sensor you can imagine. It then watches, listens…senses what is happening and learns to associate what it senses with different actions it should take. With the drum machine example, you would first select one of the kinds of beats. You then make the gesture that should trigger it: a fist perhaps. You do that a few times so it can learn what a fist looks like. It learns that the patterns it is sensing are to be linked with the beat you selected. Then you select the next beat and show it the next gesture – waggling your fingers – until it has seen enough examples. You keep doing this with each different gesture you want to control the instrument. In just a few minutes you have a working machine to try. It is learning by example how the instrument you are wanting works. You can try it, and then adjust it by showing it new examples if it doesn’t quite do what you want.

It is learning by example how the instrument you are wanting works.

Rebecca realised that this approach of learning by example gives a really powerful new way to support creativity: to help designers design. In the traditional ways machine learning is used, you start with lots of examples of the things that you want it to recognize – lots of pictures of cats and dogs, perhaps. You know the difference, so label all these training pictures as cats or dogs, so it knows which to form the two patterns from. Your aim is for the machine to learn the difference between cat and dog patterns so it can decide for itself when it sees new pictures.

When designing something like a new musical instrument though, you don’t actually know exactly what you want at the start. You have a general idea but will work out the specifics as you go. You tinker with the design, trying new things and keeping the ideas that work, gradually refining your thoughts about what you want as you refine the design of the instrument. The machine learning program can even help by making mistakes – it might not have learnt exactly what you were thinking but as a result makes some really exciting sound you never thought of. You can then explore that new idea.

One of Rebecca’s motivations in wanting to design new instruments is to create accessible instruments that people with a wide range of illness and disability can play. The idea is to adapt the instrument to the kinds of movement the person can actually do. The result is a tailored instrument perfect for each person. An advantage of this approach is you can turn a whole room, say, into an instrument so that every movement does something: an instrument that it’s impossible not to play. It is a play space to explore.

Playing an instrument suddenly really is just playing.

Cyber Security at the Movies: Guardians of the Galaxy (Fail Secure security)

28 Apr

by Paul Curzon, Queen Mary University of London

[Spoiler Alert]

Guardians of the Galaxy  Poster

If you are so power hungry you can’t stand the idea of any opposition; if you want to make a grab for total power, so decide to crush everyone in your way, then you might want to think about the security of your power supply first. Luckily, all would-be dictators who crush everyone who gets in their way as they march towards total domination of the galaxy, tend to be very naive about cyber-security.

Take Ronan the Accuser in the original Guardian of the Galaxy film. He’s a villain with a religious streak, whose belief that strength is virtue and weakness is sin leads to his totally corrupted morality. To cut to the guts of the story he manages to get the “Infinity Stone” that gives unimaginable power to its owner. With it he can destroy anyone who gets in his way so sets out to do so.

Luckily for the Galaxy, good-guy Peter Quill, or Star-Lord as he wants to be known, and his fellow Guardians have a plan. More to the point they have Gamora. She is an assassin originally sent to kill Quill, but who changes sides early on. She is an insider who knows how Ronan’s security system works, and it has a flaw: its big, heavy security doors into his control room.


Security Lesson 1. It should still be secure even when the other side know everything about how it works. If your security relies on no one knowing, its almost certainly bad security!


Once inside his ship, to get to Ronan the Guardians will need to get through those big heavy security doors. Now once upon a time big, heavy doors were locked and barred with big, heavy bolts. Even in Roman times you needed a battering ram to get in to a besieged city if they had shut the doors before you got there. Nowadays, how ever big and heavy the door, you may just need some cyber skills to get in if the person designing it didn’t think it through.

Electromagnetic locks are used all over the place and they give some big advantages, such as the fact that they mean you can program who is and isn’t allowed entry. Want to keep someone out – you can just cancel their keycard in the system. They are held locked by electromagnets: magnets that are switched on and off using an electric current. That means computers can control them. As the designer of an electromagnetic lock you have a choice, though. You can make them either “fail safe” or “fail secure”. With a fail safe lock, when the power goes, the doors automatically unlock. With fail secure, instead they lock. Its just a matter of whether the magnet is holding the door open or closed. Which you choose when designing the lock depends on your priorities.

Fail safe is a good idea, for example, if you want people to be able to escape in an emergency. If a fire cuts the electricity you want everyone to still be able to get out, not be locked in with no chance of escape. Fail secure on the other hand is good if you don’t want thieves to be able to get in just by cutting the power. The magnets hold the bolts open, so when the power goes, the spring shut.


Security Lesson 2. If you want the important things to stay secure, you need a fail secure system.


This is Ronan’s problem. Zamora knows that if you cut the power supply then the doors preventing attackers getting to him just open! He needed a fail secure door, but instead had a fail safe one installed. On such small things are galaxies won and lost! All Zamora has to do is cut the power and they can get to him. This of course leads to the next flaw in his security system. It wouldn’t have mattered if the power supply was on the secure side of that door, but it wasn’t. Ronan locks himself in and Zamora can cut the power from the outside … Dhurr!

There is one last thing that could have saved Ronan. It needed an uninterruptible power supply.


Security Lesson 3. If your system is reliant on the power supply, whether a door, your data, your control system or your life-support system, then it should keep going even if the power is switched off.


After all, what if the space ships cleaners (you never see them but they must be there somewhere!) unplug the door lock by mistake just because they need somewhere to plug in the hoover.

The solution is simple: use an “uninterruptible power supply”. They are just very fast electricity storage systems that immediately and automatically take over if the main power cuts out. The biggest on Earth keeps the power going for a whole city in Alaska (you do not want to lose the power running your heating mid-winter if you live in Alaska!). Had Ronan’s doors had a similar system, the doors wouldn’t have just opened as the power would not have been cut off.It’s always the small details that matter in cyber security (and in successfully destroying your enemies and so ruling the universe). As with all computational thinking, you have to think about everything in advance. If you don’t look after your power supply, then you may well lose all your power over the galaxy too (and your life)!


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